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Consolidated Income Statements of SAP Group for the Years Ended December 31

€ millions, unless otherwise stated   Notes   2020   2019   2018
Cloud       8,080   6,933   4,993
Software licenses       3,642   4,533   4,647
Software support       11,506   11,547   10,981
Software licenses and support       15,148   16,080   15,628
Cloud and software       23,228   23,012   20,622
Services       4,110   4,541   4,086
Total revenue   (A.1), (C.2)   27,338   27,553   24,708
                 
Cost of cloud       −2,699   −2,534   −2,068
Cost of software licenses and support       −2,008   −2,159   −2,092
Cost of cloud and software       −4,707   −4,692   −4,160
Cost of services       −3,178   −3,662   −3,302
Total cost of revenue       −7,886   −8,355   −7,462
Gross profit       19,453   19,199   17,246
Research and development       −4,454   −4,292   −3,624
Sales and marketing       −7,106   −7,693   −6,781
General and administration       −1,356   −1,629   −1,098
Restructuring   (B.6)   3   −1,130   −19
Other operating income/expense, net       84   18   −20
Total operating expenses       −20,715   −23,081   −19,005
Operating profit       6,623   4,473   5,703
                 
Other non-operating income/expense, net   (C.3)   −179   −74   −56
Finance income       1,473   787   371
Finance costs       −697   −589   −418
Financial income, net   (C.4)   776   198   −47
Profit before tax   (C.2)   7,220   4,596   5,600
                 
Income tax expense   (C.5)   −1,938   −1,226   −1,511
Profit after tax       5,283   3,370   4,088
Attributable to owners of parent       5,145   3,321   4,083
Attributable to non-controlling interests       138   50   6
                 
Earnings per share, basic (in €)   (C.6)   4.35   2.78   3.42
Earnings per share, diluted (in €)   (C.6)   4.35   2.78   3.42

Under the adoption method we chose for IFRS 16, 2018 numbers are not restated to conform to the new accounting policies. For more information, see Note (IN.1).

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