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Consolidated Income Statements of SAP Group for the Years Ended December 31

€ millions, unless otherwise stated Notes 2019 2018 2017
Cloud   6,933 4,993 3,769
Software licenses   4,533 4,647 4,872
Software support   11,547 10,981 10,908
Software licenses and support   16,080 15,628 15,780
Cloud and software   23,012 20,622 19,549
Services   4,541 4,086 3,912
Total revenue (A.1), (C.2) 27,553 24,708 23,461
         
Cost of cloud   −2,534 −2,068 −1,660
Cost of software licenses and support   −2,159 −2,092 −2,234
Cost of cloud and software   −4,692 −4,160 −3,893
Cost of services   −3,662 −3,302 −3,158
Total cost of revenue   −8,355 −7,462 −7,051
Gross profit   19,199 17,246 16,410
Research and development   −4,292 −3,624 −3,352
Sales and marketing   −7,693 −6,781 −6,924
General and administration   −1,629 −1,098 −1,075
Restructuring (B.6) −1,130 −19 −182
Other operating income/expense, net   18 −20 1
Total operating expenses   −23,081 −19,005 −18,584
Operating profit   4,473 5,703 4,877
         
Other non-operating income/expense, net (C.3) −74 −56 −36
Finance income   787 371 476
Finance costs   −589 −418 −288
Financial income, net (C.4) 198 −47 188
Profit before tax (C.2) 4,596 5,600 5,029
         
Income tax expense (C.5) −1,226 −1,511 −983
Profit after tax   3,370 4,088 4,046
Attributable to owners of parent   3,321 4,083 4,008
Attributable to non-controlling interests   50 6 38
         
Earnings per share, basic (in €) (C.6) 2.78 3.42 3.35
Earnings per share, diluted (in €) (C.6) 2.78 3.42 3.35

Under the adoption methods we chose for IFRS 9, 15, and 16, prior-year numbers are not restated to conform to the new accounting policies. For more information, see Note (IN.1).

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