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Consolidated Income Statements of SAP Group for the Years Ended December 31

€ millions, unless otherwise stated   Notes   2019   2018   2017
Cloud       6,933   4,993   3,769
Software licenses       4,533   4,647   4,872
Software support       11,547   10,981   10,908
Software licenses and support       16,080   15,628   15,780
Cloud and software       23,012   20,622   19,549
Services       4,541   4,086   3,912
Total revenue   (A.1), (C.2)   27,553   24,708   23,461
                 
Cost of cloud       −2,534   −2,068   −1,660
Cost of software licenses and support       −2,159   −2,092   −2,234
Cost of cloud and software       −4,692   −4,160   −3,893
Cost of services       −3,662   −3,302   −3,158
Total cost of revenue       −8,355   −7,462   −7,051
Gross profit       19,199   17,246   16,410
Research and development       −4,292   −3,624   −3,352
Sales and marketing       −7,693   −6,781   −6,924
General and administration       −1,629   −1,098   −1,075
Restructuring   (B.6)   −1,130   −19   −182
Other operating income/expense, net       18   −20   1
Total operating expenses       −23,081   −19,005   −18,584
Operating profit       4,473   5,703   4,877
                 
Other non-operating income/expense, net   (C.3)   −74   −56   −36
Finance income       787   371   476
Finance costs       −589   −418   −288
Financial income, net   (C.4)   198   −47   188
Profit before tax   (C.2)   4,596   5,600   5,029
                 
Income tax expense   (C.5)   −1,226   −1,511   −983
Profit after tax       3,370   4,088   4,046
Attributable to owners of parent       3,321   4,083   4,008
Attributable to non-controlling interests       50   6   38
                 
Earnings per share, basic (in €)   (C.6)   2.78   3.42   3.35
Earnings per share, diluted (in €)   (C.6)   2.78   3.42   3.35

Under the adoption methods we chose for IFRS 9, 15, and 16, prior-year numbers are not restated to conform to the new accounting policies. For more information, see Note (IN.1).

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