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(6) Restructuring

Restructuring Expenses

€ millions 2016 2015 2014
Employee-related restructuring expenses 33 610 119
Onerous contract-related restructuring expenses −5 11 7
Restructuring expenses 28 621 126

In 2016, except for limited close-out activities under our global restructuring plan executed in 2015, no significant new restructuring activities occurred.

Restructuring provisions primarily include personnel costs that result from severance payments for employee terminations and onerous contract costs. Prior-year restructuring provisions relate to restructuring activities incurred in connection with organizational changes and the integration of employees of our acquisitions in previous years.

If not presented separately in our income statement, restructuring expenses would break down by functional area as follows:

Restructuring Expenses by Functional Area

€ millions 2016 2015 2014
Cost of cloud and software 3 80 9
Cost of services 7 218 24
Research and development 7 156 24
Sales and marketing 10 147 41
General and administration 1 20 28
Restructuring expenses 28 621 126

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